Background: The use of tranexamic acid for blood loss prevention has gained popularity in many specialties, including plastic surgery. However, its use in liposuction has not been studied. The authors present a prospective, double-blind, nonrandomized study evaluating the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing perioperative blood loss during liposuction.
Methods: Twenty women undergoing liposuction were divided into two cohorts. Group 1 (n = 10) received a standard dose of 10 mg/kg of tranexamic acid intravenously in the preoperative and postoperative periods, whereas group 2 (n = 10) received a placebo. Patient hematocrit levels were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Blood volume in the infranatant of the lipoaspirate was also measured; t tests were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Age, body mass index, and volume of lipoaspirate were comparable between the two cohorts. The volume of blood loss for every liter of lipoaspirate was 56.2 percent less in the tranexamic group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Hematocrit levels at day 7 postoperatively were 48 percent less in group 1 compared with group 2 (p = 0.001). Furthermore, a 1 percent drop in the hematocrit level was found after liposuction of 812 ± 432 ml in group 1 and 379 ± 204 ml in group 2. Thus, the use of tranexamic acid could allow for aspiration of 114 percent more fat, with comparable variation in hematocrit levels.
Conclusions: Tranexamic acid has been shown to be effective for minimizing perioperative blood loss in liposuction. Further large randomized controlled studies are required to corroborate this effect.
Clinical question/level of evidence: Therapeutic, II.