Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review

J Food Drug Anal. 2018 Apr;26(2S):S61-S71. doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2018.01.009. Epub 2018 Feb 15.


This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help minimize their occurrence. Much attention should be paid to adolescents and the elderly who ingest medications with drinking fruit juices or consume fresh fruits during drug treatment. Meanwhile, more researches in this interesting issue should be conducted.

Keywords: Drug metabolism; Food–drug interaction; Fruit juices; Randomized controlled trials; Transporters.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Citrus paradisi / adverse effects*
  • Citrus paradisi / chemistry
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / metabolism
  • Food-Drug Interactions*
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices / adverse effects*
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices / analysis
  • Humans
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A