Lifestyle and nutritional modifiable factors in the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer

Urol Oncol. 2019 Jun;37(6):380-386. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.03.019. Epub 2018 Apr 25.


Bladder cancer is one of the top 5 most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. It is also one of the most expensive cancers to treat through the life course given its high rate of recurrence. While cigarette smoking and occupational exposures have been firmly established as risk factors, it is less certain whether modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity play roles in bladder cancer etiology and prognosis. This literature review based on a PubMed search summarizes the research to date on key dietary factors, types of physical activity, and smoking in relation to bladder cancer incidence, and discusses the potential public health implications for formalized smoking cessation programs among recently diagnosed patients. Overall, population-based research in bladder cancer is growing, and will be a key platform to inform patients diagnosed and living with bladder cancer, as well as their treating clinicians, how lifestyle changes can lead to the best outcomes possible.

Keywords: Bladder cancer; Diet and nutrition; Lifestyle factors; Physical activity; Smoking and smoking cessation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diet, Healthy*
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / etiology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy