Genetic screening of male patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia can guide diagnosis and clinical management

Hum Immunol. 2018 Jul;79(7):571-577. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2018.04.014. Epub 2018 Apr 27.


The precise diagnosis of an immunodeficiency is sometimes difficult to assess, especially due to the large spectrum of phenotypic variation reported among patients. Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) do not have, for a large part, an identified genetic cause. The identification of a causal genetic mutation is important to confirm, or in some cases correct, the diagnosis. We screened >150 male patients with hypogammaglobulinemia for mutations in three genes involved in pediatric X-linked primary immunoglobulin deficiency: CD40LG, SH2D1A and BTK. The SH2D1A screening allowed to reclassify two individuals with an initial CVID presentation as XLP after mutations identification. All these mutations were associated with a lack of protein expression. In addition, 4 patients with a primary diagnosis of CVID and one with a primary IgG subclass deficiency were requalified as XLA after identifying BTK mutations. Interestingly, two out of these 5 patients carried a damaging coding BTK mutation associated with a lower, but detectable, BTK expression in monocytes, suggesting that a dysfunctional protein explains the disease phenotype in these patients. In conclusion, our results advocate to include SH2D1A and BTK in newly developed targeted NGS genetic testing, to contribute to providing the most appropriate medical treatment and genetic counselling.

Keywords: BTK; CD40L; CVID; Immunodeficiency; SAP.

MeSH terms

  • Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase
  • Agammaglobulinemia / diagnosis*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Genetic Testing
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Monocytes / physiology*
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics*
  • Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Associated Protein / genetics*


  • Biomarkers
  • CD40LIg fusion protein
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • SH2D1A protein, human
  • Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Associated Protein
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase
  • BTK protein, human