Importance: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an extremely rare fatal premature aging disease. There is no approved treatment.
Objective: To evaluate the association of monotherapy using the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib with mortality rate in children with HGPS.
Design, setting, and participants: Cohort study comparing contemporaneous (birth date ≥1991) untreated patients with HGPS matched with treated patients by age, sex, and continent of residency using conditional Cox proportional hazards regression. Treatment cohorts included patients from 2 single-group, single-site clinical trials (ProLon1 [n = 27; completed] and ProLon2 [n = 36; ongoing]). Untreated patients originated from a separate natural history study (n = 103). The cutoff date for patient follow-up was January 1, 2018.
Exposure: Treated patients received oral lonafarnib (150 mg/m2) twice daily. Untreated patients received no clinical trial medications.
Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was mortality. The primary analysis compared treated patients from the first lonafarnib trial with matched untreated patients. A secondary analysis compared the combined cohorts from both lonafarnib trials with matched untreated patients.
Results: Among untreated and treated patients (n = 258) from 6 continents, 123 (47.7%) were female; 141 (54.7%) had a known genotype, of which 125 (88.7%) were classic (c.1824C>T in LMNA). When identified (n = 73), the primary cause of death was heart failure (79.4%). The median treatment duration was 2.2 years. Median age at start of follow-up was 8.4 (interquartile range [IQR], 4.8-9.5) years in the first trial cohort and 6.5 (IQR, 3.7-9.0) years in the combined cohort. There was 1 death (3.7%) among 27 patients in the first trial group and there were 9 deaths (33.3%) among 27 patients in the matched untreated group. Treatment was associated with a lower mortality rate (hazard ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.93; P = .04). In the combined cohort, there were 4 deaths (6.3%) among 63 patients in the treated group and 17 deaths (27.0%) among 63 patients in the matched untreated group (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.90; P = .04).
Conclusions and relevance: Among patients with HGPS, lonafarnib monotherapy, compared with no treatment, was associated with a lower mortality rate after 2.2 years of follow-up. Study interpretation is limited by its observational design.