Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study

Nutrients. 2018 Apr 28;10(5):550. doi: 10.3390/nu10050550.

Abstract

Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants' diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years of age is associated with celiac disease. A 1-to-3 nested case-control study, comprised of 207 celiac disease children and 621 controls matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype, was performed on a birth cohort of HLA-DR3-DQ2 and/or DR4-DQ8-positive children. Subjects were screened annually for celiac disease using tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Three-day food records estimated the mean intake of milk powder at ages 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months. Conditional logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) at last intake prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity, and for each time-point respectively and adjusted for having a first-degree relative with celiac disease and gluten intake. Intake of milk powder prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity was not associated with celiac disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.03; p = 0.763). In conclusion, intake of milk powder in early childhood is not associated with celiac disease in genetically susceptible children.

Keywords: HLA; Sweden; commercial infant foods; formula; gluten; infant feeding; milk powder.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Age of Onset
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Bottle Feeding / adverse effects*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Celiac Disease / blood
  • Celiac Disease / etiology*
  • Celiac Disease / genetics
  • Celiac Disease / immunology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Europe
  • Female
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / immunology
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / immunology
  • HLA-DR3 Antigen / genetics
  • HLA-DR3 Antigen / immunology
  • HLA-DR4 Antigen / genetics
  • HLA-DR4 Antigen / immunology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Formula / adverse effects*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Phenotype
  • Powders
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Transglutaminases / immunology
  • United States

Substances

  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers
  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • HLA-DQ2 antigen
  • HLA-DQ8 antigen
  • HLA-DR3 Antigen
  • HLA-DR4 Antigen
  • Powders
  • transglutaminase 2
  • Transglutaminases
  • GTP-Binding Proteins