Leishmania in a Patient with Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma/Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Am J Case Rep. 2018 May 1:19:512-516. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.907584.


BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection spread by the bite of infected sand flies that are usually present in the Middle East, Africa, and some parts of Asia and Europe. Leishmaniasis manifests in 3 different forms: Visceral (also known as Kala Azar), which is the most serious type; cutaneous, which is the most common type; and mucocutaneous. The symptoms of this infection range from a silent infection to fever, enlargement of the liver and spleen, weight loss, and pancytopenia. CASE REPORT In this case report, we discuss a 73-year-old man known to have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), presenting with unremitting fever and who to our surprise was found to have Kala Azar. CONCLUSIONS Early diagnosis and treatment are very important in treating visceral leishmaniasis. While the conventional treatment in immunocompromised patients is liposomal amphotericin B, our patient responded to corticosteroids.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Amphotericin B / therapeutic use
  • Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Fever / parasitology
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / diagnosis*
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / drug therapy
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / complications*
  • Male
  • Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate / therapeutic use


  • Antiprotozoal Agents
  • Glucocorticoids
  • liposomal amphotericin B
  • Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate
  • Amphotericin B