First-line Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors vs. Other First-Line Antihypertensive Drug Classes in Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

J Hum Hypertens. 2018 Jul;32(7):494-506. doi: 10.1038/s41371-018-0066-x. Epub 2018 May 1.

Abstract

First-line renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors are recommended for diabetic patients because of their potential nephron-protective properties. For hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, little is known about first-line RAS inhibitors vs. other first-line antihypertensive agents in terms of cardiovascular outcomes. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the comparative efficacy of first-line RAS inhibitors vs. other first-line antihypertensive drug classes in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We identified RCTs by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to December 15, 2015. Eighteen RCTs involving 18,862 participants were included. First-line RAS inhibitors were not different from first-line diuretics for all the primary outcomes. First-line RAS inhibitors reduced major cardiovascular events (2 RCTs, relative risk [RR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66, 0.91) and heart failure (4 RCTs, RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61, 0.83) compared to first-line calcium channel blockers. Compared to β-blockers, RAS inhibitors reduced the risk of all-cause mortality (1 RCT, RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47, 0.84), major cardiovascular events (1 RCT, RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62, 0.93) and heart failure (1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40, 0.92). Our meta-analysis indicates that, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, first-line RAS inhibitors reduced adverse cardiovascular events to the same degree as first-line diuretics but to a greater degree than first-line calcium channel blockers and first-line beta blockers.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / mortality
  • Middle Aged
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects

Substances

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents