The Biomarker S100B and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-analysis

Pediatrics. 2018 Jun;141(6):e20180037. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-0037. Epub 2018 May 1.


Context: The usefulness of S100B has been noted as a biomarker in the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adults. However, S100B efficacy as a biomarker in children has previously been relatively unclear.

Objective: A meta-analysis is conducted to assess the prognostic value of S100B in predicting intracerebral lesions in children after mTBI.

Data sources: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar.

Study selection: Studies including children suffering mTBI who underwent S100B measurement and computed tomography (CT) scans were included.

Data extraction: Of 1030 articles screened, 8 studies met the inclusion criteria.

Results: The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 98%-100%) and 34% (95% CI: 30%-38%), respectively. A second analysis was based on the collection of 373 individual data points from 4 studies. Sensitivity and specificity results, obtained from reference ranges in children with a sampling time <3 hours posttrauma, were 97% (95% CI: 84.2%-99.9%) and 37.5% (95% CI: 28.8%-46.8%), respectively. Only 1 child had a low S100B level and a positive CT scan result without clinically important traumatic brain injury.

Limitations: Only patients undergoing both a CT scan and S100B testing were selected for evaluation.

Conclusions: S100B serum analysis as a part of the clinical routine could significantly reduce the number of CT scans performed on children with mTBI. Sampling should take place within 3 hours of trauma. Cutoff levels should be based on pediatric reference ranges.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Brain Concussion / blood
  • Brain Concussion / diagnosis*
  • Brain Concussion / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Concussion / etiology
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Reference Values
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit / blood*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Biomarkers
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit
  • S100B protein, human