Context: The usefulness of S100B has been noted as a biomarker in the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adults. However, S100B efficacy as a biomarker in children has previously been relatively unclear.
Objective: A meta-analysis is conducted to assess the prognostic value of S100B in predicting intracerebral lesions in children after mTBI.
Data sources: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar.
Study selection: Studies including children suffering mTBI who underwent S100B measurement and computed tomography (CT) scans were included.
Data extraction: Of 1030 articles screened, 8 studies met the inclusion criteria.
Results: The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 98%-100%) and 34% (95% CI: 30%-38%), respectively. A second analysis was based on the collection of 373 individual data points from 4 studies. Sensitivity and specificity results, obtained from reference ranges in children with a sampling time <3 hours posttrauma, were 97% (95% CI: 84.2%-99.9%) and 37.5% (95% CI: 28.8%-46.8%), respectively. Only 1 child had a low S100B level and a positive CT scan result without clinically important traumatic brain injury.
Limitations: Only patients undergoing both a CT scan and S100B testing were selected for evaluation.
Conclusions: S100B serum analysis as a part of the clinical routine could significantly reduce the number of CT scans performed on children with mTBI. Sampling should take place within 3 hours of trauma. Cutoff levels should be based on pediatric reference ranges.
Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.