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, 8 (1), 6833

Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Parainfluenza Viruses 1-4 in Children From Viet Nam


Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Parainfluenza Viruses 1-4 in Children From Viet Nam

Martin Linster et al. Sci Rep.


HPIVs are serologically and genetically grouped into four species that account for up to 10% of all hospitalizations due to acute respiratory infection in children under the age of five. Genetic and epidemiological data for the four HPIVs derived from two pediatric cohorts in Viet Nam are presented. Respiratory samples were screened for HPIV1-4 by real-time PCR. Demographic and clinical data of patients infected with different HPIV were compared. We used a hemi-nested PCR approach to generate viral genome sequences from HPIV-positive samples and conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. In total, 170 samples tested positive for HPIV. HPIV3 was most commonly detected in our cohort and 80 co-detections of HPIV with other respiratory viruses were found. Phylogenetic analyses suggest local endemic circulation as well as punctuated introductions of new HPIV lineages. Viral gene flow analysis revealed that Viet Nam is a net importer of viral genetic diversity. Epidemiological analyses imply similar disease severity for all HPIV species. HPIV sequences from Viet Nam formed local clusters and were interspersed with sequences from diverse geographic regions. Combined, this new knowledge will help to investigate global HPIV circulation patterns in more detail and ultimately define more suitable vaccine strains.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Dated trees of the HN gene of HPIV1 (A), HPIV2 (B), and HPIV4 (C); terminal branches are colored by geographical region of virus isolation. (A) HPIV1 global phylogeny. Clades 1 and 2 correspond to clusters identified previously in the literature. (B) HPIV2 phylogeny. Representative clades are labelled for discussion purposes. (C) The HPIV4 phylogeny comprises two clades corresponding to previously described subspecies 4A and 4B.
Figure 2
Figure 2
HPIV3 HN global phylogeny with terminal branches colored by geographical region of virus isolation (A). Nodes 1 and 2 indicate the common ancestors of lineages previously described in the literature. Clades containing the Vietnamese sequences generated in this study are labelled V1–V5, with clade V2 (B) and clade V4 (C) shown in detail. Within V4, a large monophyletic clade comprising sequences from Viet Nam is indicated with an asterisk. (D) Scatter plot of mean migration rates of HPIV3 HN in and out of Viet Nam in 2009–2010. The diagonal line indicates identical mean rates of migration in and out of Viet Nam.

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