KAMO: towards automated data processing for microcrystals

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol. 2018 May 1;74(Pt 5):441-449. doi: 10.1107/S2059798318004576. Epub 2018 Apr 24.


In protein microcrystallography, radiation damage often hampers complete and high-resolution data collection from a single crystal, even under cryogenic conditions. One promising solution is to collect small wedges of data (5-10°) separately from multiple crystals. The data from these crystals can then be merged into a complete reflection-intensity set. However, data processing of multiple small-wedge data sets is challenging. Here, a new open-source data-processing pipeline, KAMO, which utilizes existing programs, including the XDS and CCP4 packages, has been developed to automate whole data-processing tasks in the case of multiple small-wedge data sets. Firstly, KAMO processes individual data sets and collates those indexed with equivalent unit-cell parameters. The space group is then chosen and any indexing ambiguity is resolved. Finally, clustering is performed, followed by merging with outlier rejections, and a report is subsequently created. Using synthetic and several real-world data sets collected from hundreds of crystals, it was demonstrated that merged structure-factor amplitudes can be obtained in a largely automated manner using KAMO, which greatly facilitated the structure analyses of challenging targets that only produced microcrystals.

Keywords: KAMO; automatic data processing; microcrystals; small-wedge data sets.

MeSH terms

  • Cluster Analysis
  • Crystallography, X-Ray / methods*
  • Data Collection / methods*
  • Datasets as Topic
  • Electronic Data Processing / methods*
  • Humans
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Software*
  • Viral Proteins / chemistry


  • Proteins
  • Viral Proteins