Increased Systemic Inflammation and Gut Permeability Among Women With Treated HIV Infection in Rural Uganda

J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 14;218(6):922-926. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy244.


In a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and age- and sex-matched HIV-uninfected comparators, we assessed soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, interleukin 6, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFAPB), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. The median age was 51 years. Among HIV-positive individuals, the median antiretroviral therapy (ART) duration was 7 years, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 433 cells/μL, and 86% had an undetectable viral load. Although HIV-positive individuals had higher sCD14, IFABP, and hs-CRP levels, we found evidence of interaction by sex, such that HIV-positive women had greater differences from HIV-negative women, compared with differences between HIV-positive men and HIV-negative men. In models restricted to HIV-positive individuals, women had higher levels of all 5 biomarkers than men.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antigens, CD / blood*
  • Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / blood*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism*
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins / blood*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-6 / blood*
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / blood*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / blood*
  • Rural Population
  • Uganda


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic
  • CD14 protein, human
  • CD163 antigen
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins
  • IL6 protein, human
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • C-Reactive Protein