In a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and age- and sex-matched HIV-uninfected comparators, we assessed soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, interleukin 6, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFAPB), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. The median age was 51 years. Among HIV-positive individuals, the median antiretroviral therapy (ART) duration was 7 years, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 433 cells/μL, and 86% had an undetectable viral load. Although HIV-positive individuals had higher sCD14, IFABP, and hs-CRP levels, we found evidence of interaction by sex, such that HIV-positive women had greater differences from HIV-negative women, compared with differences between HIV-positive men and HIV-negative men. In models restricted to HIV-positive individuals, women had higher levels of all 5 biomarkers than men.