Recent and historical trends in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and its implication for risk assessment in travellers

J Travel Med. 2018 May 1;25(suppl_1):S3-S9. doi: 10.1093/jtm/tay006.


Japanese encephalitis is a major disease in many countries in Asia often visited by both leisure and non-leisure travellers. Although reported cases of Japanese apoptosis (JE) in travellers are relatively few, there are indications that both the number of cases might be underreported and that changes in the epidemiological situation in these parts of Asia may increase the risk, especially non-leisure travellers. Although JE mainly is considered a rural disease urban cases are seen the large economic growth and urbanization of previously rural areas in many for JE high-endemic areas may further add to the risk for JE, especially for business travellers, when visiting newly established peri-urban areas. This review will address these dynamic and unpredictable risks for JE and discuss its possible implications for the traveller.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Encephalitis Virus, Japanese / pathogenicity
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / epidemiology*
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / transmission
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines / economics
  • Mosquito Vectors
  • Risk Assessment
  • Seasons
  • Travel-Related Illness*


  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines