Oncogenic lesions up-regulate bioenergetically demanding cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, to drive cancer cell growth and continued proliferation. However, the hijacking of these key processes by oncogenic pathways imposes onerous cell stress that must be mitigated by adaptive responses for cell survival. The mechanism by which these adaptive responses are established, their functional consequences for tumor development, and their implications for therapeutic interventions remain largely unknown. Using murine and humanized models of prostate cancer (PCa), we show that one of the three branches of the unfolded protein response is selectively activated in advanced PCa. This adaptive response activates the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α (P-eIF2α) to reset global protein synthesis to a level that fosters aggressive tumor development and is a marker of poor patient survival upon the acquisition of multiple oncogenic lesions. Using patient-derived xenograft models and an inhibitor of P-eIF2α activity, ISRIB, our data show that targeting this adaptive brake for protein synthesis selectively triggers cytotoxicity against aggressive metastatic PCa, a disease for which presently there is no cure.
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