Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is higher among patients with T2DM. Direct current cardioversion (DCCV) is an important management option in persistent AF. We sought to determine independent risk factors for immediate and short-term outcomes of DCCV for treatment of AF in patients with T2DM.
Methods: Retrospective outcome analysis of DCCV for persistent AF in 102 T2DM patients compared with 102 controls.
Results: DCCV was successful in 68 (66.6%) people with T2DM compared to 86 (84.3%) in the control group (P = 0.003). After initial successful cardioversion, only 38 (37.2%) T2DM patients remained in sinus rhythm compared to 63 (61.8%) in the control group (P = 0.007) at a median follow-up of 74.5 days (IQR 69.4-77.4). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of T2DM (P = 0.014), digoxin use (P = 0.01), statin use (P = 0.005), left-atrial size (P = 0.01), and LV ejection fraction (P = 0.008) were independent risk factors for immediate DCCV failure. T2DM (P = 0.034) was an independent risk factor for AF relapse. Among patients with T2DM, previous DCCV (P = 0.033), digoxin use (P = 0.035), left-atrial size (P = 0.01), LV ejection fraction (P = 0.036), and HbA1c (P = 0.011) predicted immediate failure of DCCV whilst digoxin use (P = 0.026) was an independent risk factor for relapse of AF.
Conclusion: T2DM, higher HbA1c, digoxin treatment, and structural and functional cardiac abnormalities are independent risk factors for immediate DCCV failure and AF relapse.