Prevalence of Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Psoriasis

An Bras Dermatol. 2018 Mar;93(2):205-211. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20186168.

Abstract

Background: Coexistence of obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia is defined as metabolic syndrome (MBS), which is among the important risk indicators for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and stroke. Smoking and alcohol consumption are the other factors which lead to an increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, smoking and alcohol consumption in psoriasis patients and the relationship between disease severity and these factors.

Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 563 patients with chronic plaque-type psoriasis, all of which completed a questionnaire and underwent a complete physical examination. Data about MBS components, psoriasis severity/duration, smoking and alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular diseases were recorded.

Results: A total of 563 patients with ages ranging from 18 to 78 years were evaluated. Metabolic syndrome was found in 12.6% of the patients [central obesity (38.7%), hypertension (14.3%), dyslipidemia (18.6%), diabetes (9.2%)], while 50.3% had smoking, and 3.3% had alcohol consumption. Patients with metabolic syndrome were older and more likely to have a longer disease duration than those without metabolic syndrome (p<0.05 for each). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women than in men. Psoriasis was more severe in patients with central obesity, diabetes and smoking than in those without (p<0.05 for each).

Study limitations: Retrospective design.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that MBS is a risk factor for psoriasis patients with advanced age. The relationship between disease severity and obesity, diabetes, and smoking in psoriasis patients indicates that the patients should be informed about the potential metabolic risks and receive therapies for behavioral changes besides anti-psoriatic treatment in order to minimize these risks.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Dyslipidemias / complications
  • Dyslipidemias / epidemiology
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Abdominal / complications
  • Obesity, Abdominal / epidemiology
  • Psoriasis / complications
  • Psoriasis / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Time Factors
  • Turkey / epidemiology
  • Young Adult