[Characterization of Children Younger Than Five Years With Suspected Allergic Diseases]

Rev Alerg Mex. Jan-Mar 2018;65(1):52-60. doi: 10.29262/ram.v65i1.343.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: Symptoms of allergic diseases are a common cause of consultation during childhood.

Objective: To describe the profile of a population of Colombian preschool children seen in an allergology department and assess possible risk factors.

Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of patients younger than 5 years who were assessed for one year. A complete medical history was obtained and allergology workup was carried out with skin prick tests as appropriate for each case. Risk factors were assessed by means of multivariate analysis.

Results: A total of 674 patients were included, out of which 382 (52.7%) were males. Median age was 34 months. The reasons for consultation were cough or recurrent wheezing (54.3%), rhinitis (48.7%), and eczema (32.2%). Skin prick tests were performed with aeroallergens in 299 patients (48%) and with food in 170 (27%), with positivity being found in 114 (38%) and 16 (9.4%), respectively. Main sensitizers were dust mites and egg. A direct association was found between eczema and prematurity (OR = 0.496; 95 % CI = 0.289-0.823)], between recurrent cough/wheezing and family history of allergy (OR = 1.837; 95 % CI = 1,306-2,586), and between recurrent cough/wheezing and history of bronchiolitis (OR = 2.646; 95 % CI = 1.812-3.886).

Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms represented the main cause of consultation. Dust mites were the most commonly identified allergens. Family history of allergy and bronchiolitis.

Antecedentes: Los síntomas de enfermedad alérgica constituyen una causa frecuente de consulta en la infancia. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de una población de preescolares colombianos atendidos en un servicio de alergología y evaluar los posibles factores de riesgo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo trasversal de pacientes menores de cinco años evaluados durante un año. Se realizó historia clínica completa y estudio alergológico con pruebas cutáneas según el caso. Se analizaron factores de riesgo mediante análisis multivariado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 674 pacientes, 382 (52.7 %) hombres. La mediana de edad fue 34 meses. Los motivos de consulta fueron tos o sibilancias recurrentes (54.3 %), rinitis (48.7 %) y eccema (32.2 %). Se realizaron pruebas cutáneas con aeroalérgenos a 299 pacientes (48 %) y con alimentos a 170 (27 %), encontrando positividad en 114 (38 %) y 16 (9.4 %), respectivamente. Los principales sensibilizadores fueron los ácaros y el huevo. Se encontró asociación directa entre eccema y prematurez (OR = 0.496; IC 95 % = 0.289-0.823), tos/sibilancias recurrentes e historia familiar de alergia (OR = 1.837; IC 95 % = 1.306-2.586), y tos/sibilancias recurrentes y antecedente de bronquiolitis (OR = 2.646; IC 95 % = 1.812-3.886). Conclusión: Los síntomas respiratorios representaron la principal causa de consulta. Los ácaros fueron los alérgenos más identificados. La historia familiar de alergia y la bronquiolitis parecen ser factores de riesgo.

Keywords: Aeroallergens; Allergic diseases; Food allergy; Preschool children.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Colombia
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / diagnosis*
  • Hypersensitivity / etiology
  • Infant
  • Male