Background: In the ISAR-CABG (Is Drug-Eluting-Stenting Associated with Improved Results in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts?) trial, clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients undergoing treatment of saphenous vein graft lesions were superior with drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents.
Objectives: The authors compared outcomes between treatment groups at 5 years.
Methods: Patients were randomized (1:1:1:3) to receive DES (either permanent-polymer paclitaxel-eluting stents, permanent-polymer sirolimus-eluting stents, or biodegradable-polymer sirolimus-eluting stents) or bare-metal stents. The primary endpoint was the combined incidence of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization (TLR). Secondary endpoints were the composite of death or MI and TLR.
Results: A total of 610 patients were allocated to treatment with DES (n = 303) or bare-metal stents (n = 307). At 5 years, the primary endpoint occurred in 159 (55.5%) versus 157 (53.6%) patients in the DES and bare-metal stent groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 1.23; p = 0.89). There was interaction between treatment effect and time (pinteraction = 0.005), with a lower event rate in the DES group at 1 year (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.94; p = 0.02) but a numerically higher rate between 1 and 5 years (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.63; p = 0.13). Death or MI occurred in 93 (32.8%) versus 108 (36.6%) patients, respectively (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.12; p = 0.24), without significant interaction between treatment effect and time (pinteraction = 0.57). TLR occurred in 84 (33.1%) versus 69 (25.5%) patients in the DES and bare-metal stent groups, respectively (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.64; p = 0.27). There was interaction between treatment effect and time (pinteraction <0.001): TLR was significantly lower in the DES group at 1 year (HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.86; p = 0.01) but significantly higher thereafter (HR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.08; p = 0.001).
Conclusions: In patients undergoing treatment of saphenous vein graft lesions, the advantage of DES over bare-metal stents demonstrated at 1 year was lost at 5 years due to higher attrition of efficacy in the DES group. (Efficacy Study of Drug-Eluting and Bare Metal Stents in Bypass Graft Lesions [ISAR-CABG]; NCT00611910).
Keywords: bare-metal stent; drug-eluting stent; long-term follow-up; randomized trial; repeat revascularization; saphenous vein graft.
Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.