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. 2018 May;15(5):7871-7883.
doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.8285. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Radiofrequency Radiation From Nearby Base Stations Gives High Levels in an Apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A Case Report

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Free PMC article

Radiofrequency Radiation From Nearby Base Stations Gives High Levels in an Apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A Case Report

Lennart Hardell et al. Oncol Lett. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

Keywords: cancer; exposure; health; measurement; microwaves; radiofrequency radiation.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Box plot of exposure in µW/m2, logarithmic scale, for the 6 measurement rounds and total exposure (apartment in Östermalm, Stockholm). The median is indicated by a black line inside each box; the bottom and top of the boxes show first and third quartiles; the end of the whiskers are calculated as 1.5×IQR (interquartile range). Points represent outliers. Results are displayed according to increasing median level. 1, Balcony outside kitchen; 2, Kitchen; 3, Dining room; 4, Master bedroom; 5, Balcony outside bathroom; 6, Living room; 7, Balcony outside living room; 8, Main hall; 9, Workroom close to kitchen; 10, Workroom close to laundry; 11, Laundry; 12, Girl's bedroom; 13, Boy's bedroom; 14, Balcony outside boy's bedroom; 15, Hall outside elevator; 16, Bedroom in tower; 17, Conference room in tower; 18, Balcony outside tower.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Bar graph on mean levels of total exposure in µW/m2 displayed with a logarithmic scale and ranked according to increasing mean level in the different locations (apartment in Östermalm, Stockholm). 1, Balcony outside kitchen; 2, Kitchen; 3, Dining room; 4, Master bedroom; 5, Balcony outside bathroom; 6, Living room; 7, Balcony outside living room; 8, Main hall; 9, Workroom close to kitchen; 10, Workroom close to laundry; 11, Laundry; 12, Girl's bedroom; 13, Boy's bedroom; 14, Balcony outside boy's bedroom; 15, Hall outside elevator; 16, Bedroom in tower; 17, Conference room in tower; 18, Balcony outside tower.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Time variation of measurements in boy's bedroom (apartment in Östermalm, Stockholm) from the afternoon until early next morning (µW/m2 on a logarithmic scale). The spikes represent measurements taken every 4th sec.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Image taken from the balcony outside the living room where the highest mean and median were measured (24,885.9 and 22,256.1 µW/m2). One group of base stations is located only 12 m from the balcony.

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