This study investigated the probiotic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 in activating and regenerating leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (Lgr)5- and B lymphoma Moloney murine leukaemia virus insertion region (Bmi)1-expressing intestinal stem cells in rodents following Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=64) were randomised into control (KN), LPS (KL), probiotic + LPS (KL-Pr), and sequential probiotic + LPS + probiotic (KPR-7L) groups. Microencapsulated L. plantarum IS-10506 (2.86×1010 cfu/day) was administered via a gastric tube once daily for up to 7 days, and LPS (250 ng/kg body weight) was administered via a gastric tube on the first day of the experiment to all but the KN group. On day 3, 4, 6, and 7, four rats per group were sacrificed, and Lgr5, Bmi1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and β-catenin expression in the ileum was assessed by immunohistochemistry. LPS treatment reduced Lgr5 (P≤0.05) and Bmi1 (P=0.000) levels in intestinal epithelial cells, whereas probiotic treatment increased levels of Lgr5 (KPR-7L, P=0.008) and Bmi1 (KL-Pr, P=0.008; and KPR-7L, P=0.000). Lgr5 expression was upregulated in the KL-Pr group on day 3, 4, 6, and 7 (P=0.056). Additionally, ERK levels were elevated in Bmi1- and Lgr5-expressing cells in rats treated with probiotics (KL-Pr and KPR-7L), whereas β-catenin levels were increased in Lgr5-expressing cells from KPR-7L rats and in Bmi1-expressing cells from KL-Pr and KPR-7L rats on day 3 and 4. These results demonstrated that the probiotic L. plantarum IS-10506 activated intestinal stem cells to counter inflammation and might be useful for maintaining intestinal health, especially when used as a prophylactic agent.
Keywords: intestinal stem cell; lipopolysaccharide; mucosal damage; probiotic; regeneration.