Background: Advanced chronic kidney disease is associated with elevated risk for cognitive impairment. However, it is not known whether and how cognitive impairment is associated with planning and preparation for end-stage renal disease.
Study design: Retrospective observational study.
Setting & participants: 630 adults participating in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study who had cognitive assessments in late-stage CKD, defined as estimated glome-rular filtration rate ≤ 20mL/min/1.73m2, and subsequently initiated maintenance dialysis therapy.
Predictor: Predialysis cognitive impairment, defined as a score on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination lower than previously derived age-based threshold scores. Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, comorbid conditions, and health literacy.
Outcomes: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) as first dialysis modality, preemptive permanent access placement, venous catheter avoidance at dialysis therapy initiation, and preemptive wait-listing for a kidney transplant.
Measurements: Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression.
Results: Predialysis cognitive impairment was present in 117 (19%) participants. PD was the first dialysis modality among 16% of participants (n=100), 75% had preemptive access placed (n=473), 45% avoided using a venous catheter at dialysis therapy initiation (n=279), and 20% were preemptively wait-listed (n=126). Predialysis cognitive impairment was independently associated with 78% lower odds of PD as the first dialysis modality (adjusted OR [aOR], 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.74; P=0.02) and 42% lower odds of venous catheter avoidance at dialysis therapy initiation (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34-0.98; P=0.04). Predialysis cognitive impairment was not independently associated with preemptive permanent access placement or wait-listing.
Limitations: Potential unmeasured confounders; single measure of cognitive function.
Conclusions: Predialysis cognitive impairment is associated with a lower likelihood of PD as a first dialysis modality and of venous catheter avoidance at dialysis therapy initiation. Future studies may consider addressing cognitive function when testing strategies to improve patient transitions to dialysis therapy.
Keywords: CKD to ESRD transition; Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs); central venous catheter (CVC); cognitive impairment; dementia; dialysis access; dialysis modality; end-stage renal disease (ESRD); executive function; incident ESRD; memory; peritoneal dialysis (PD); transplant waitlisting.
Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.