We aimed to assess the interobserver agreement of interim PET (I-PET) and end-of-treatment PET (EoT-PET) using the Deauville score (DS) in first-line diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Methods: I-PET and EoT-PET scans of DLBCL patients were performed in the HOVON84 study (2007-2012), an international multicenter randomized controlled trial. Patients received R-CHOP14 and were randomized to receive rituximab intensification in the first 4 cycles or not. I-PET was performed after 4 cycles (for observational purposes), and EoT-PET after 6 or 8 cycles. Two independent central reviewers retrospectively scored all scans according to the DS system, masked to clinical outcomes. Results were dichotomized as negative (DS of 1-3) or positive (DS of 4-5). Besides percentage overall agreement (OA), we calculated agreement for positive and negative scores, expressed as positive agreement (PA) and negative agreement (NA), respectively. Results: 465 I-PET and 457 EoT-PET scans were centrally reviewed; baseline 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT was available in 75%-77%, and CT in the remaining cases. Percentage OA for I-PET and EoT-PET were 87.7% and 91.7% (P = 0.049), with NA of 92.0% and 95.0% (P = 0.091), and PA of 73.7% and 76.3% (P = 0.656), respectively. Conclusion: Interobserver agreement using DS in DLBCL patients in I-PET and EoT-PET yields high OA and NA. The lower PA suggests that EoT-PET/CT treatment evaluation in daily practice and I-PET-adapted trials may benefit from dual reads and central review, respectively.
Keywords: DLBCL; Deauville score; Lugano criteria; observer variation; positron emission tomography.
© 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.