Hypertension Canada's 2018 Guidelines for Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension in Adults and Children

Can J Cardiol. 2018 May;34(5):506-525. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2018.02.022. Epub 2018 Mar 1.


Hypertension Canada provides annually updated, evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults and children. This year, the adult and pediatric guidelines are combined in one document. The new 2018 pregnancy-specific hypertension guidelines are published separately. For 2018, 5 new guidelines are introduced, and 1 existing guideline on the blood pressure thresholds and targets in the setting of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is revised. The use of validated wrist devices for the estimation of blood pressure in individuals with large arm circumference is now included. Guidance is provided for the follow-up measurements of blood pressure, with the use of standardized methods and electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices in individuals with hypertension, and either ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or home blood pressure monitoring in individuals with white coat effect. We specify that all individuals with hypertension should have an assessment of global cardiovascular risk to promote health behaviours that lower blood pressure. Finally, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor combination should be used in place of either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in individuals with heart failure (with ejection fraction < 40%) who are symptomatic despite appropriate doses of guideline-directed heart failure therapies. The specific evidence and rationale underlying each of these guidelines are discussed.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antihypertensive Agents / classification
  • Blood Pressure Determination* / instrumentation
  • Blood Pressure Determination* / methods
  • Blood Pressure Determination* / standards
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory* / instrumentation
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory* / methods
  • Canada
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Child
  • Evidence-Based Practice
  • Female
  • Health Promotion / methods
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / therapy
  • Male
  • Preventive Health Services / methods*
  • Risk Assessment / methods


  • Antihypertensive Agents