Prevalence and determinants of cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of bipolar disorders: results from the FACE-BD cohort

Psychol Med. 2019 Feb;49(3):519-527. doi: 10.1017/S0033291718001186. Epub 2018 May 8.


Background: Cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, but risk factors associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic BD are still poorly understood. We aimed to validate classification criteria for the identification of clinically significant cognitive impairment, based on psychometric properties, to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic BD, and identify risk factors for cognitive deficits using a multivariate approach.

Methods: We investigated neuropsychological performance in 476 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of BD expert centres. We used a battery of tests, assessing five domains of cognition. Five criteria for the identification of neuropsychological impairment were tested based on their convergent and concurrent validity. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions between cognitive impairment and several clinical and demographic variables were performed to identify risk factors for neuropsychological impairment in BD.

Results: One cut-off had satisfactory psychometric properties and yielded a prevalence of 12.4% for cognitive deficits in euthymic BD. Antipsychotics use were associated with the presence of a cognitive deficit.

Conclusions: This is the first study to validate a criterion for clinically significant cognitive impairment in BD. We report a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment than previous studies, which may have overestimated its prevalence. Patients with euthymic BD and cognitive impairment may benefit from cognitive remediation.

Keywords: Antipsychotic; attention; bipolar disorder; cognition; euthymic; executive; memory; psychometric; remediation; social functioning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bipolar Disorder / complications*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / classification
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / complications*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / epidemiology*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Neuropsychological Tests / standards
  • Prevalence
  • Psychometrics
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult