Enzyme assisted extraction of biomolecules as an approach to novel extraction technology: A review

Food Res Int. 2018 Jun:108:309-330. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.03.006. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Abstract

An interest in the development of extraction techniques of biomolecules from various natural sources has increased in recent years due to their potential applications particularly for food and nutraceutical purposes. The presence of polysaccharides such as hemicelluloses, starch, pectin inside the cell wall, reduces the extraction efficiency of conventional extraction techniques. Conventional techniques also suffer from low extraction yields, time inefficiency and inferior extract quality due to traces of organic solvents present in them. Hence, there is a need of the green and novel extraction methods to recover biomolecules. The present review provides a holistic insight to various aspects related to enzyme aided extraction. Applications of enzymes in the recovery of various biomolecules such as polyphenols, oils, polysaccharides, flavours and colorants have been highlighted. Additionally, the employment of hyphenated extraction technologies can overcome some of the major drawbacks of enzyme based extraction such as longer extraction time and immoderate use of solvents. This review also includes hyphenated intensification techniques by coupling conventional methods with ultrasound, microwave, high pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide. The last section gives an insight on application of enzyme immobilization as a strategy for large scale extraction. Immobilization of enzymes on magnetic nanoparticles can be employed to enhance the operational performance of the system by multiple use of expensive enzymes making them industrially and economically feasible.

Keywords: Biomolecules, ultrasound extraction; Enzyme immobilization; Microwave extraction; Supercritical extraction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid
  • Enzymes / chemistry*
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Hydrolysis
  • Microwaves
  • Phytochemicals / isolation & purification*
  • Ultrasonics

Substances

  • Enzymes
  • Phytochemicals