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Review
. 2018 Oct 1;10(10):a032656.
doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a032656.

Translation Termination and Ribosome Recycling in Eukaryotes

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Free PMC article
Review

Translation Termination and Ribosome Recycling in Eukaryotes

Christopher U T Hellen. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Termination of mRNA translation occurs when a stop codon enters the A site of the ribosome, and in eukaryotes is mediated by release factors eRF1 and eRF3, which form a ternary eRF1/eRF3-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) complex. eRF1 recognizes the stop codon, and after hydrolysis of GTP by eRF3, mediates release of the nascent peptide. The post-termination complex is then disassembled, enabling its constituents to participate in further rounds of translation. Ribosome recycling involves splitting of the 80S ribosome by the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCE1 to release the 60S subunit. Subsequent dissociation of deacylated transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) from the 40S subunit may be mediated by initiation factors (priming the 40S subunit for initiation), by ligatin (eIF2D) or by density-regulated protein (DENR) and multiple copies in T-cell lymphoma-1 (MCT1). These events may be subverted by suppression of termination (yielding carboxy-terminally extended read-through polypeptides) or by interruption of recycling, leading to reinitiation of translation near the stop codon.

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