Pharmacological properties of revefenacin (TD-4208), a novel, nebulized long-acting, and lung selective muscarinic antagonist, at human recombinant muscarinic receptors and in rat, guinea pig, and human isolated airway tissues

Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2018 Apr 30;6(3):e00400. doi: 10.1002/prp2.400. eCollection 2018 Jun.


Revefenacin (TD-4208) is a novel, long-acting, and lung-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonist in development as a nebulized inhalation solution for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study evaluated the pharmacology of revefenacin at human recombinant mAChRs and in airway tissues from rats, guinea pigs, and humans. At human recombinant mAChRs, revefenacin displayed high affinity (pKI = 8.2-9.8) and behaved as a competitive antagonist (pKI, apparent = 9.4-10.9) at the five human recombinant mAChRs. Kinetic studies demonstrated that revefenacin dissociated significantly slower from the hM3 (t1/2 = 82 minutes) compared to the hM 2 (t1/2 = 6.9 minutes) mAChR at 37°C, thereby making it kinetically selective for the former subtype. Similarly, in functional studies, revefenacin-mediated antagonism of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked calcium mobilization responses were reversed less rapidly at hM3 compared to the hM2 mAChR. In isolated tracheal tissues from rat and guinea pig and isolated bronchial tissues from humans, revefenacin potently antagonized mAChR-mediated contractile responses. Furthermore, the antagonistic effects of revefenacin in rat, guinea pig, and human airway tissues were slowly reversible (t1/2 of 13.3, >16, and >10 hours, respectively). These data demonstrate that revefenacin is a potent, high affinity, and selective functional mAChR antagonist with kinetic selectivity for the hM3 receptor and produces potent and long-lasting antagonism of mAChR-mediated contractile responses in rat, guinea pig, and human airway tissue. These data suggest that revefenacin has the potential to be a potent once-daily dosed inhaled bronchodilator in COPD patients.

Keywords: Bronchodilator; COPD; LAMA; TD‐4208; muscarinic; revefenacin.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Animals
  • Benzamides / pharmacology*
  • Bronchi / drug effects
  • Bronchi / physiology*
  • Carbamates / pharmacology*
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Humans
  • Muscarinic Antagonists / pharmacology*
  • Nebulizers and Vaporizers
  • Rats
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Trachea / drug effects
  • Trachea / physiology*


  • Benzamides
  • Carbamates
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • revefenacin