The development and present status of the SOP model of associative learning

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove). 2019 Feb;72(2):346-374. doi: 10.1177/1747021818777074. Epub 2018 May 23.


The Sometimes Opponent Processes (SOP) model in its original form was especially calculated to address how expected unconditioned stimulus (US) and conditioned stimulus (CS) are rendered less effective than their novel counterparts in Pavlovian conditioning. Its several elaborations embracing the essential notion have extended the scope of the model to integrate a much greater number of phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Here, we trace the development of the model and add further thoughts about its extension and refinement.

Keywords: Pavlovian conditioning; SOP model; classical conditioning; priming theory.

MeSH terms

  • Association Learning / physiology*
  • Conditioning, Classical / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Psychological*