Functional analysis of a hypomorphic allele shows that MMP14 catalytic activity is the prime determinant of the Winchester syndrome phenotype

Hum Mol Genet. 2018 Aug 15;27(16):2775-2788. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddy168.


Winchester syndrome (WS, MIM #277950) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by progressive joint destruction and osteolysis. To date, only one missense mutation in MMP14, encoding the membrane-bound matrix metalloprotease 14, has been reported in WS patients. Here, we report a novel hypomorphic MMP14 p.Arg111His (R111H) allele, associated with a mitigated form of WS. Functional analysis demonstrated that this mutation, in contrast to previously reported human and murine MMP14 mutations, does not affect MMP14's transport to the cell membrane. Instead, it partially impairs MMP14's proteolytic activity. This residual activity likely accounts for the mitigated phenotype observed in our patients. Based on our observations as well as previously published data, we hypothesize that MMP14's catalytic activity is the prime determinant of disease severity. Given the limitations of our in vitro assays in addressing the consequences of MMP14 dysfunction, we generated a novel mmp14a/b knockout zebrafish model. The fish accurately reflected key aspects of the WS phenotype including craniofacial malformations, kyphosis, short-stature and reduced bone density owing to defective collagen remodeling. Notably, the zebrafish model will be a valuable tool for developing novel therapeutic approaches to a devastating bone disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / physiopathology
  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Catalytic Domain / genetics
  • Contracture / genetics*
  • Contracture / physiopathology
  • Corneal Opacity / genetics*
  • Corneal Opacity / physiopathology
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / physiopathology
  • Gene Knockout Techniques
  • Growth Disorders / genetics*
  • Growth Disorders / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Osteolysis / genetics*
  • Osteolysis / physiopathology
  • Osteoporosis / genetics*
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology
  • Phenotype
  • Zebrafish


  • MMP14 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 14

Supplementary concepts

  • Winchester syndrome