Anti-senescence compounds: A potential nutraceutical approach to healthy aging

Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Sep;46:14-31. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2018.05.001. Epub 2018 May 6.

Abstract

The desire of eternal youth seems to be as old as mankind. However, the increasing life expectancy experienced by populations in developed countries also involves a significantly increased incidence of the most common age-related diseases (ARDs). Senescent cells (SCs) have been identified as culprits of organismal aging. Their number rises with age and their senescence-associated secretory phenotype fuels the chronic, pro-inflammatory systemic state (inflammaging) that characterizes aging, impairing the regenerative ability of stem cells and increasing the risk of developing ARDs. A variegated class of molecules, including synthetic senolytic compounds and natural compounds contained in food, have been suggested to possess anti-senescence activity. Senolytics are attracting growing interest, and their safety and reliability as anti-senescence drugs are being assessed in human clinical trials. Notably, since SCs spread inflammation at the systemic level through pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory signals, foods rich in polyphenols, which exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, have the potential to be harnessed as "anti-senescence foods" in a nutraceutical approach to healthier aging. We discuss the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich foods in relation to the Mediterranean diet and the dietary habits of long-lived individuals, and examine their ability to modulate bacterial genera in the gut.

Keywords: Aging; Anti-senescence diet; Cellular senescence; Polyphenols; Senolytic.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / drug effects
  • Aging / physiology*
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Cellular Senescence / drug effects
  • Cellular Senescence / physiology*
  • Diet, Healthy / methods
  • Diet, Healthy / trends*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Healthy Aging / drug effects
  • Healthy Aging / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Polyphenols / administration & dosage
  • Reproducibility of Results

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Polyphenols