The impact of initial antibiotic treatment failure: Real-world insights in healthcare-associated or nosocomial pneumonia

J Infect. 2018 Jul;77(1):9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2018.04.002. Epub 2018 May 6.


Objectives: To assess real-world treatment patterns and clinical outcomes associated with initial antibiotic therapy (IAT, antibiotics received ≤ 48 h post-initiation of antibiotic therapy), including level of IAT failure, and potential risk factors for IAT failure in healthcare-associated infections.

Methods: Data were obtained from medical records of adult patients hospitalized with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP), including ventilator-associated pneumonia, from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014 in Brazil, France, Italy, Russia and Spain during the retrospective, observational study, RECOMMEND (NCT02364284; D4280R00005). Potential risk factors for IAT failure were explored using logistic regression analyses.

Results: Mean (standard deviation) age and Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Score were 66.0 (16.2) years and 2.4 (2.4), respectively (N = 451). Most patients (62.5%) received monotherapy. Mean (standard deviation) duration of IAT was 8.8 (7.2) days. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens were identified in 52.4% of patients with ≥ 1 pathogen isolated (154/294). IAT failure was recorded in 72.5% of patients and was significantly associated with isolation of a MDR pathogen and country using multivariate analyses.

Conclusions: Real-world data demonstrate the burden of HCAP/NP, with high rates of IAT failure. The association of IAT failure with MDR pathogens highlights the urgent need to understand and account for local prevalence of MDR pathogens when selecting IAT for the management of HCAP/NP.

Keywords: Healthcare-associated; Initial antibiotic therapy; Nosocomial pneumonia; Real-world evidence; Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia / drug therapy*
  • Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Medical Records
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated / microbiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Failure*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents

Associated data