This study assesses the characteristics of coronary obstructions that underwent transcatheter intervention in a pediatric catheterization laboratory, the procedural details, and patient outcomes. Acute cardiac failure due to coronary obstructions in children is rare. The role of catheter based intervention is largely unreported. Single center retrospective review between January 2000 and December 2016. Thirty-three patients (median age 2y/o [0-38], weighing 9.6 kg [2.2-91]) underwent 39 transcatheter interventions on 39 lesions, mainly left main coronary (16/39; 39%) and right coronary (9/39; 23%) arteries. Most patients had congenital heart disease (29/33; 88%). Cath indications included ventricular dysfunction (17), cardiac arrest (7), failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (5), and other (4). Almost half (18/39; 46%) were performed on ECMO support. Obstructions were post-surgical (16; 4 with coronary manipulation), thrombotic (13; 5 < 30 days from cardiac surgery), and miscellaneous lesions (10). Interventions included 25 bare metal stents implanted in 22 lesions in 17 patients (mainly post-surgical lesions; 3 at Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis), nine balloon angioplasty only, four lytic therapy ± mechanical disruption of thrombus, and four technical failures. There were no procedure-related deaths. Most patients survived to discharge or transplant (24/33; 73%). Six patients who received stents had follow-up catheterization (median 15.5 months [1-106]); all were without restenosis. Most coronary obstructions intervened upon in a pediatric cath lab were on young, critically ill patients with congenital heart disease secondary to surgical manipulation/injury or thrombosis. Transcatheter intervention should be considered a potential treatment strategy in this population.
Keywords: Congenital heart disease; Coronary artery; Outcome; Pediatrics; Percutaneous coronary intervention.