Hoffman, JR, Gepner, Y, Hoffman, M, Zelicha, H, Shapira, S, and Ostfeld, I. Effect of high dose, short-duration β-alanine supplementation on circulating IL-10 concentrations during intense military training. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2978-2981, 2018-This study examined the effect of β-alanine as a potential anti-inflammatory agent during intense military training. Twenty soldiers (20.1 ± 0.6 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a β-Alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were provided with 12 g·d of either BA or PL for 7 days between 2 intensive periods of navigational training and restricted sleep. During the initial training period, soldiers navigated on average 27.8 km·d with ∼50% of their body mass in their packs for 5 days. Soldiers returned to base and began a 7-day supplementation program before departing for an additional period of intense field training. During the second period of field training, soldiers navigated 10 km·d for an additional 5 days, carrying similar loading as the initial week, performed tactical missions, and slept approximately 5 hours per day. Blood samples were obtained after the initial training period and after the second training period and analyzed for IL-10. Magnitude-based inferences that were used to provide inferences on the true effect BA may have had on IL-10 concentrations compared with PL, calculated from 90% confidence intervals. Data analysis indicated that changes in circulating IL-10 concentrations (mean difference 0.86 pg·ml) were possibly greater (57%) for BA than PL. Results of this study suggest that 1 week of high-dose BA ingestion may enhance the anti-inflammatory response during intense military training, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of BA during intense training.