INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR TREATMENT AT 2-MONTH INTERVALS REDUCES FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE ENLARGEMENT AND VISION LOSS IN RADIATION MACULOPATHY: A Pilot Study

Retina. 2019 Aug;39(8):1519-1526. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002200.

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate, in eyes with radiation maculopathy, the effect of 2-month-interval anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on best-corrected visual acuity and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) enlargement using optical coherence tomography angiography.

Methods: Consecutive treatment-naive patients with radiation maculopathy after proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma were retrospectively included. Clinical and optical coherence tomography angiography data at baseline and the 6-month visit were recorded. Two independent observers measured FAZ area manually on 3 × 3-mm optical coherence tomography angiography images of the superficial capillary plexus and deep capillary plexus. Patients were encouraged to follow strictly a 2-month-interval intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment by either bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Findings were analyzed based on the adherence to the treatment scheme.

Results: According to the adherence to the bimonthly anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment protocol, patients were categorized into 3 groups: treatment protocol (n = 19, strict adherence), variable intervals (n = 11, intervals other than 2 months), and no treatment (n = 11). The estimated radiation dose to the foveola in each group was 49 ± 16, 46 ± 17, and 46 ± 18 cobalt gray equivalent, respectively (P = 0.85). For the entire cohort, best-corrected visual acuity loss (P < 0.02) and FAZ enlargement (P < 0.0001) were observed over 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity loss was significantly less pronounced in the treatment-protocol group than in the variable-interval and no-treatment groups (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004). The FAZ enlargement was lower in the treatment-protocol group compared with the variable-interval group for both superficial capillary plexus (P = 0.029) and deep capillary plexus (P = 0.03), and to the no-treatment group for the deep capillary plexus only (P = 0.016).

Conclusion: Decrease in best-corrected visual acuity and FAZ enlargement on optical coherence tomography angiography occurred over 6 months in eyes with radiation maculopathy and were significantly reduced under 2-month-interval anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Bevacizumab / therapeutic use
  • Choroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fovea Centralis / blood supply
  • Humans
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Male
  • Melanoma / radiotherapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Proton Therapy / adverse effects*
  • Radiation Injuries / drug therapy*
  • Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • Radiation Injuries / physiopathology
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Ranibizumab / therapeutic use
  • Retina / radiation effects*
  • Retinal Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Retinal Diseases / etiology
  • Retinal Diseases / physiopathology
  • Retinal Vessels / physiopathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Vision Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Vision Disorders / etiology
  • Vision Disorders / physiopathology
  • Visual Acuity / physiology

Substances

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Bevacizumab
  • Ranibizumab