Purpose: The main aim of the study was to predict the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on physical, functional, and psychological measures in patients with different types of neck pain (NP).
Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 202 patients from a primary health center and the physiotherapy outpatient department of a hospital. Patients were divided into four groups according to their NP characteristics: chronic (CNP), acute whiplash (WHIP), chronic NP associated with temporomandibular dysfunction (NP-TMD), or chronic NP associated with chronic primary headache (NP-PH). The following measures were performed: Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12), Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BECK), and cervical range of movement (CROM).
Results: The regression models based on the SF-12 total HRQoL for CNP and NP-TMD groups showed that only NDI was a significant predictor of the worst HRQoL (48.9% and 48.4% of the variance, respectively). In the WHIP group, the regression model showed that BECK was the only significant predictor variable for the worst HRQoL (31.7% of the variance). Finally, in the NP-PH group, the regression showed that the BECK, STAI, and VAS model predicted the worst HRQoL (75.1% of the variance).
Conclusion: Chronic nonspecific NP and chronic NP associated with temporomandibular dysfunction were the main predictors of neck disability. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain were the main predictors of WHIP or primary headache associated with CNP.
Keywords: anxiety; depression; disability; neck pain; quality of life.