Background: Caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) remains a very rare form of ectopic pregnancy associated with serious life threatening obstetric complications and even death in case of late diagnosis and treatment.
Case presentation: We report a case of a ruptured caesarean scar pregnancy in a 29 year-old gravida 5, para 3 with a past obstetric history of two consecutive caesarean sections done 9 and 5 years ago respectively. The patient presented with intermittent lower abdominal pains on a 20 weeks gestation associated with mild epigastralgia and 2 previous episodes of mild pervaginal bleeding (2 and 1 months ago respectively before consultation) managed with injectable progesterone. Her evolution 4 h later was marked by an increase in the intensity of the abdominal pain, an unmeasurable blood pressure and a feeble pulse. Immediate paracentesis revealed 10 cc of fresh non coagulating blood. The diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy with abundant hemoperitoneum was considered and an emergency laparotomy with fluid and blood resuscitation was carried out. A midline laparotomy revealed a ruptured caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy with an abundant hemoperitoneum. Careful resection of the placenta and repair of the ruptured isthmic region of the uterus was carried out. Recovery after surgery was without complications and the patient was discharged on the 6th day following surgery.
Conclusion: Caesarean scar pregnancy remains a very rare obstetric condition. Late diagnosis of this condition can be associated with serious life threatening obstetric complications. The rarity of the condition warrants a high index of suspicion among clinicians.
Keywords: Caesarean scar pregnancy; Case report; Ectopic pregnancy; Rupture.