Borrmann Type 1 Cancer is Associated with a High Recurrence Rate in Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer

Ann Surg Oncol. 2018 Jul;25(7):2044-2052. doi: 10.1245/s10434-018-6509-3. Epub 2018 May 11.


Background: This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of Borrmann type 1 gastric cancer and evaluate its clinical significance in advanced gastric cancer compared with Borrmann types 2 and 3 cancer.

Methods: Between January 1989 and December 2013, 1949 patients with advanced gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy at our institution were enrolled in the study.

Results: Of the 1949 patients, 59 (3%) exhibited Borrmann type 1 cancer, characterized by a large size, rare serosal invasion, lower lymph node involvement, location in the upper third of the stomach, intestinal type, and differentiated histology. The recurrence rate was higher for Borrmann type 1 than for Borrmann types 2 and 3 cancer. In addition, more than half of the Borrmann type 1 recurrences showed a hematogenous pattern. However, overall survival did not differ significantly among the three cancer types. In the multivariate analysis, Borrmann type 1 cancer, with tumor depth, node metastasis, and vascular invasion, was an independent risk factor associated with recurrence. Particularly, Borrmann type 1 cancer showed a worse prognosis in both overall survival and recurrence-free survival than the other Borrmann types in the upper third of the stomach.

Conclusions: Borrmann type 1 gastric cancer is associated with a higher recurrence rate than Borrmann types 2 and 3, but not with a difference in the overall survival rate.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastrectomy / mortality*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stomach Neoplasms / classification*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • Survival Rate