Objectives: To determine the association of furosemide therapy with the incidence of bone fractures in children with congenital heart disease.
Study design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with data extracted from the 2008-2014 Texas Medicaid databases. Pediatric patients aged <12 years diagnosed with congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, or heart failure were included. Patients taking furosemide were categorized into a furosemide-adherent group (medication possession ratio of ≥70%), and a furosemide-nonadherent group (medication possession ratio of <70%). A third group of patients was matched to the furosemide user groups by using propensity score matching. A multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard model with a Kaplan-Meier plot (time-to-fracture) were used to compare the 3 groups, controlling for baseline demographics and clinical characteristics.
Results: After matching, 3912 patients (furosemide adherent, n = 254; furosemide nonadherent, n = 724; no furosemide, n = 2934) were identified. The incidence of fractures was highest for the furosemide-adherent group (9.1%; 23 of 254), followed by the furosemide-nonadherent group (7.2%; 52 of 724), which were both higher than for patients who did not receive furosemide (5.0%; 148 of 2934) (P < .001). Using logistic regression, both furosemide groups were more likely to have fractures than the no furosemide group: furosemide-adherent OR of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.17-2.98; P = .009); furosemide nonadherent OR of 1.5 (95% CI, 1.10-2.14; P = .01). In the Cox proportional hazard model, the risk of fractures for the furosemide-adherent group was significantly higher compared with the no furosemide group (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.00-2.42; P = .04).
Conclusions: Furosemide therapy, even with nonconsistent dosing, was associated with an increased risk of bone fractures in children with congenital heart disease.
Keywords: congenital heart disease; fractures; furosemide; loop diuretic.
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