Vitreoretinal Interface Characteristics in Eyes with Idiopathic Macular Holes: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

Turk J Ophthalmol. 2018 Apr;48(2):70-74. doi: 10.4274/tjo.23327. Epub 2018 Apr 25.


Objectives: To determine the qualitative and quantitative vitreoretinal interface characteristics with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with macular hole (MH) and investigate their relation with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and MH duration.

Materials and methods: Sixty-one eyes of 46 consecutive patients diagnosed with idiopathic MH were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 66.7±7.5 (51-79) years. Complete ophthalmologic examination and SD-OCT examination were performed in all eyes and MH stages were determined according to SD-OCT findings. Qualitative characteristics of the vitreoretinal interface were investigated, including vitreomacular traction, vitreopapillary traction, maculopapillary traction, vitreoschisis, intraretinal cyst, presence of epiretinal membrane, and the integrity of the photoreceptor inner segment-outer segment junction (IS/OS) and external limiting membrane (ELM). In addition, MH diameter, MH base diameter (MHBD), ELM defect diameter, IS/OS defect diameter, and MH height were quantitatively measured and the MH index was calculated.

Results: Out of 61 eyes, 9.8% were classified as stage 1a, 19.7% as stage 1b, 18% as stage 2, 23% as stage 3, and 29.5% as stage 4. Mean BCVA was 0.28±0.24 (1 mps-1.0) Snellen and MH duration was 10.08±18.6 (1-108) months. The most common interface characteristics associated with MH were determined as intraretinal cyst (91.8%), IS/OS defect (78.7%) and ELM defect (63.9%). Duration and stage of MH were inversely proportional to BCVA but directly proportional to the presence and diameter of IS/OS and ELM defects. BCVA was significantly lower in eyes with IS/OS and ELM defects (p<0.0001; p<0.0001 Mann-Whitney U test).

Conclusion: We determined that the most important factors affecting BCVA in cases with idiopathic MH were MH stage, MH duration, MHBD, and the presence and diameter of IS/OS and ELM defects, which suggests that these parameters should be considered while making decisions about prognosis and treatment.

Keywords: Idiopathic macular holes; optical coherence tomography; vitreoretinal interface.