Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) or ubiquinone is found in the biological system which is synthesized by the conjugation of benzoquinone ring with isoprenoid chain of variable length. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation energizes the body and increases body energy production in the form of ATP and helps to treat various human diseases such as cardiomyopathy, muscular dystrophy, periodontal disease, etc. Reports of these potential therapeutic advantages of CoQ10 have resulted in its high market demand, which focus the researchers to work on this molecule and develop better bioprocess methods for commercial level production. At the moment, chemical synthesis, semi-synthetic method as well as bio-production utilizing microbes as biofactory are in use for the synthesis of CoQ10. Chemical synthesis involves use of cheap and easily available precursor molecules such as isoprenol, chloromethylquinone, vinylalane, and solanesol. Chemical synthesis methods due to the use of various solvents and chemicals are less feasible, which limits its application. The microbial production of CoQ10 has added advantages of being produced in optically pure form with high yield using inexpensive medium composition. Several bacteria, e.g., Agrobacterium, Paracoccus, Rhodobacterium, and yeast such as Candida, Rhodotorula are the potent ubiquinone producer. Some alternative biosynthetic pathway for designing of CoQ10 production coupled with metabolic engineering might help to increase CoQ10 production. The most common practiced strategy for strain development for commercial CoQ10 production is through natural isolation and chemical mutagenesis. Here, we have reviewed the chemical, semi-synthetic as well as microbial CoQ10 production in detail.
Keywords: Antioxidant; CoQ10 biosynthesis; Isoprenoid; Metabolic engineering; Ubiquinone.