Parental representations of depressed outpatients from a U.S.A. sample

J Affect Disord. Sep-Oct 1988;15(2):149-55. doi: 10.1016/0165-0327(88)90083-3.


A case-control study of adult depressed outpatients derived from a U.S. sample confirmed previous Australian reports of a significantly greater likelihood for depressives to report an earlier lack of parental care as well as parental overprotection. Only 32% of the patients, as against 62% of the non-psychiatric controls, reported 'optimal bonding', as defined by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), from one or both parents. By contrast 62% of the depressives and 27% of the controls reported exposure to PBI-defined 'affectionless control' from one or both parents. As in previous studies, a raw PBI care score of less than 10 was highly discriminating, being reported by 32% of the depressives and only 3% of the controls.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Object Attachment
  • Parent-Child Relations*
  • Psychological Tests
  • Risk Factors
  • United States