Purpose: To evaluate the effect of corneal vesicles in patients with posterior corneal vesicles (PCV) on corneal endothelial cell (CEC) density and the acquisition of amblyopia.
Methods: In this retrospective study of patients with PCV (18 eyes of 14 patients), CEC density was examined by noncontact specular microscopy during each follow-up examination. Best-corrected visual acuity and the objective refractive error were also examined.
Results: Of the 14 total patients, 10 were diagnosed with PCV and 4 were diagnosed with bilateral suspected PCV or posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD), and in all patients, no ocular abnormality other than corneal vesicles was observed. In patients with PCV and patients with bilateral suspected PCV or PPCD, mean CEC density was 1131 ± 338 and 1095 ± 492 cells/mm, respectively. In both PCV group and the bilateral suspected PCV or PPCD-group patients who were followed for 164.2 ± 25.4 months (range: 123-186 months), CEC density tended not to decrease. In patients with PCV, the mean best-corrected visual acuity of the unaffected eyes was significantly higher than that of the affected eyes with corneal vesicles (-0.10 ± 0.06 and 0.05 ± 0.13, respectively, P = 0.012). Four of 9 affected eyes (1 eye was excluded because of retinal atrophy) exhibited amblyopia, and all 4 eyes had astigmatism higher than 2 diopters.
Conclusions: Although CEC density of patients with PCV in this study was found to be stable over a long-term follow-up period, strict attention should be given to the possibility of amblyopia in eyes with PCV.