Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common atrial arrhythmia in adults worldwide. As medical advancements continue to contribute to an ever-increasing aging population, the burden of atrial fibrillation on the modern health care system continues to increase. Therapies are also evolving, for treatment of the arrhythmia itself, and stroke risk mitigation. Internists and cardiologists alike are, in most instances, the frontline contact for AF patients, and would benefit from remaining facile in their understanding of care options. To continue to deliver high-quality care to this expanding patient group, an updated, concise review for the clinician is prudent. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the current epidemiology and pathophysiology of AF, as well as contemporary procedural therapeutic options.
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