Patient education and behavioral management represent the first treatment approaches to the patient with parasomnia, especially in case of disorders of arousal (DOA). A pharmacologic treatment of DOA may be useful when episodes are frequent and persist despite resolution of predisposing factors, are associated with a high risk of injury, or cause significant impairment, such as excessive sleepiness. Approved drugs for DOA are still lacking. The most commonly used medications are benzodiazepines and antidepressants. The pharmacologic treatment of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is symptomatic, and the most commonly used drugs are clonazepam and melatonin.
Keywords: Antidepressant drugs; Benzodiazepines; Clonazepam; Disorders of arousal; Melatonin; REM behavior disorder; Sleep enuresis; Sleep-related eating disorder.
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