The reactivity-driven biochemical mechanism of covalent KRAS G12C inhibitors

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2018 Jun;25(6):454-462. doi: 10.1038/s41594-018-0061-5. Epub 2018 May 14.


Activating mutations in KRAS are among the most common tumor driver mutations. Until recently, KRAS had been considered undruggable with small molecules; the discovery of the covalent KRASG12C inhibitors ARS-853 and ARS-1620 has demonstrated that it is feasible to inhibit KRAS with high potency in cells and animals. Although the biological activity of these inhibitors has been described, the biochemical mechanism of how the compounds achieve potent inhibition remained incompletely understood. We now show that the activity of ARS-853 and ARS-1620 is primarily driven by KRAS-mediated catalysis of the chemical reaction with Cys12 in human KRASG12C, while the reversible binding affinity is weak, in the hundreds of micromolar or higher range. The mechanism resolves how an induced, shallow and dynamic pocket not expected to support high-affinity binding of small molecules can nevertheless be targeted with potent inhibitors and may be applicable to other targets conventionally considered undruggable.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Catalysis
  • Cysteine / metabolism
  • Genes, ras*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasms / genetics
  • Protein Binding
  • ras Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • ras Proteins / chemistry
  • ras Proteins / metabolism


  • ras Proteins
  • Cysteine