Ischemia/reperfusion injury in porcine intestine - Viability assessment

World J Gastroenterol. 2018 May 14;24(18):2009-2023. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i18.2009.


Aim: To investigate viability assessment of segmental small bowel ischemia/reperfusion in a porcine model.

Methods: In 15 pigs, five or six 30-cm segments of jejunum were simultaneously made ischemic by clamping the mesenteric arteries and veins for 1 to 16 h. Reperfusion was initiated after different intervals of ischemia (1-8 h) and subsequently monitored for 5-15 h. The intestinal segments were regularly photographed and assessed visually and by palpation. Intraluminal lactate and glycerol concentrations were measured by microdialysis, and samples were collected for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The histological changes were described and graded.

Results: Using light microscopy, the jejunum was considered as viable until 6 h of ischemia, while with transmission electron microscopy the ischemic muscularis propria was considered viable until 5 h of ischemia. However, following ≥ 1 h of reperfusion, only segments that had been ischemic for ≤ 3 h appeared viable, suggesting a possible upper limit for viability in the porcine mesenteric occlusion model. Although intraluminal microdialysis allowed us to closely monitor the onset and duration of ischemia and the onset of reperfusion, we were unable to find sufficient level of association between tissue viability and metabolic markers to conclude that microdialysis is clinically relevant for viability assessment. Evaluation of color and motility appears to be poor indicators of intestinal viability.

Conclusion: Three hours of total ischemia of the small bowel followed by reperfusion appears to be the upper limit for viability in this porcine mesenteric ischemia model.

Keywords: Histology; Ischemia; Jejunum; Microdialysis; Porcine model; Reperfusion; Viability.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Color
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Motility
  • Intestinal Mucosa / blood supply
  • Intestinal Mucosa / diagnostic imaging
  • Intestinal Mucosa / pathology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / ultrastructure
  • Jejunum / blood supply
  • Jejunum / diagnostic imaging
  • Jejunum / pathology*
  • Jejunum / ultrastructure
  • Male
  • Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion / complications
  • Microdialysis
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Photography
  • Reperfusion Injury / diagnostic imaging
  • Reperfusion Injury / etiology
  • Reperfusion Injury / pathology*
  • Sus scrofa
  • Swine
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Survival*