DICER1 syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that predisposes individuals to multiple cancer types. Through mutations of the gene encoding the endoribonuclease, Dicer, DICER1 syndrome disrupts the biogenesis and processing of miRNAs with subsequent disruption in control of gene expression. Since the first description of DICER1 syndrome, case reports have documented novel germline mutations of the DICER1 gene in patients with cancers as well as second site mutations that alter the function of the Dicer protein expressed. Here, we present a review of mutations in the DICER1 gene, the respective protein sequence changes, and clinical manifestations of DICER1 syndrome. Directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: DICER1 germline mutations; DICER1 syndrome; cancer; miRNA; rare genetic disorder.