Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is typically an ascending infection, spreading from the lower genital tract. The majority of cases of PID are related to a sexually transmitted infection. The diagnosis of PID is primarily clinical and should be suspected in female patients with lower abdominal or pelvic pain and genital tract tenderness. During the patient’s evaluation, other etiologies of pain, including ectopic pregnancy, should be considered and ruled out. PID is treated with antibiotics to cover the primary pathogens, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Short-term complications include tubo-ovarian or pelvic abscess. Long-term complications include ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. Early diagnosis and treatment can potentially prevent complications.
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