The thyroid hormone is well known for controlling metabolism, growth, and many other bodily functions. The thyroid gland, anterior pituitary gland, and hypothalamus comprise a self-regulatory circuit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The main hormones produced by the thyroid gland are thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, and T4 work in synchronous harmony to maintain proper feedback mechanisms and homeostasis. Hypothyroidism, caused by an underactive thyroid gland, typically manifests as bradycardia, cold intolerance, constipation, fatigue, and weight gain. In contrast, hyperthyroidism caused by increased thyroid gland function manifests as weight loss, heat intolerance, diarrhea, fine tremor, and muscle weakness.
Iodine is an essential trace element absorbed in the small intestine. It is an integral part of T3 and T4. Sources of iodine include iodized table salt, seafood, seaweed, and vegetables. Decreased iodine intake can cause iodine deficiency and decreased thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodine deficiency can cause cretinism, goiter, myxedema coma, and hypothyroidism.
Copyright © 2023, StatPearls Publishing LLC.