Eosinophils induce inflammation by releasing cytokines and cytotoxic granule proteins. Infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes occurs in the outer membrane of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs). Eosinophils play an important role in the growth of CSDHs. However, the manner in which eosinophils accumulate within CSDH fluid remains undetermined. In the current study, we assessed the expression of eosinophil chemoattractants in CSDH fluids according to growth stage of CSDHs and examined the correlation between the two. CSDH fluids were obtained from 38 patients during trepanation surgery. Ecalectin, eotaxin-3, interleukin-5 (IL-5), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. For use as controls, serum samples were collected from 5 healthy adults, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 5 adults with unruptured aneurysms. The percentage of eosinophils (%eosinophil) in CSDH fluids was calculated using Giemsa staining. Concentrations of ecalectin, eotaxin-3, IL-5, and EDN were nearly equivalent in serum and CSF samples; however, their concentrations were high in CSDH fluids. In particular, ecalectin and EDN levels in CSDH fluids were significantly higher than those in serum and CSF. Levels of eotaxin-3, IL-5, EDN, and %eosinophil were significantly higher in laminar type of CSDH, whereas that of ecalectin was not. The correlations between eotaxin-3 and IL-5, IL-5 and EDN, and EDN and %eosinophil were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Our data suggest that eotaxin-3 is a chemoattractant of eosinophils. IL-5 induces the activation of eosinophils subsequent to degranulation of EDN into CSDH fluids. These factors may serve as novel therapeutic targets for managing CSDH.
Keywords: EDN; chronic subdural hematoma; eosinophil; eotaxin-3; interleukin-5.